We know that Process lenses were made for process cameras, not LF cameras. We know that Macro lenses for LF are mounted in shutter, have more elements, and open wider than Process lenses. The diaphragms are different, because of whatever the shutter provides versus whatever barrel-lenses give - which is usually more blades. Coverage may differ also.
However, sweeping all of that aside, is there a qualitative difference in resolution or image quality ? In other words, if we shoot close to 1:1, and stop both lenses down to say f/16, will we see much of a difference in image quality ?